In the past, both the United Kingdom and Australia had expressed their willingness to conclude such an agreement, but no firm action was taken, allegedly because of the ongoing negotiations between the United Kingdom and the EU, but also because of the recent Covid-19 epidemic. But the case has become more important and perhaps accelerated in the wake of the recession that inevitably followed the blockades imposed to combat the pandemic. Negotiations for a free trade agreement between the UNITED Kingdom and Australia finally began on 17 June 2020 and the first round took place between 29 June and 10 July 2020. The magnitude of potential tariff savings for companies exporting to Australia is calculated from ITC-TradeMap trade data for 2017-18 in the 8-digit product classification (HS2017). [Note 162] TradeMap data is aggregated in the UN Broad Economic Categories via the UN conversion table. The BEC classification of goods is then classified in the two fundamental types of national end-use categories defined in the NAS, namely final consumer goods or final consumption. [Note 163] Prior to aggregation, the business data will be cross-referenced with the corresponding data for rates in Australia in 2018, which will be downloaded from the MacMaps database. www.thedrinksbusiness.com/2019/05/australias-wine-exports-rise-5/ ↩ The baseline represents the state of the economy in the absence of a free trade agreement between Britain and Australia. For the purposes of this analysis, stylized assumptions are being made to establish a trade relationship between the UK and the EU on the basis of a hypothetical zero-rate free trade agreement and an increase in costs on the basis of historic free trade agreements. [Note 62] These assumptions about long-term relationships are necessary to lay the groundwork for modeling new trade agreements, but they are not government policy. The modelling does not explicitly take into account the effects of the protocol on Ireland and Northern Ireland (in the withdrawal agreement).
Prior to aggregation, commercial data and corresponding data on 2018 UK rates are cross-referenced from the MacMaps database. Following a consultation, the United Kingdom recently announced the UK`s Global Tariff Plan, which will apply after the end of the transition period. The calculations below do not take into account the UKGT. The average average tariff rate applied for Australian products imported into the UK is 6%, based on the most favoured nation tariffs currently applied by the United Kingdom (MEIST). For goods exported to Australia in the United Kingdom, this fee is 2%. On a trade basis (which represents the specific value of bilateral trade between the UK and Australia in different sectors), the average rate is 2% for Australian products imported into the UK and 3% for products from the UK exported to Australia. [Note 55] The magnitude of potential tariff savings for businesses and consumers importing products from Australia is calculated based on HMRC`s 2017 and 2018 8-digit product classification (SH2017). Specific policy objectives for negotiations with Australia are set as part of the negotiations. The first level of tariff liberalization is calculated by multiplying the average import values over two years for 2017 and 2018 by the corresponding common external duties of the UNION. This is a simplified estimate of the overall potential liberalization of the agreement`s tariffs, consistent with the assumptions set out in Scenario 2 above, namely that the United Kingdom is removing its import duties with Australia. In reality, the capacity for action for individual goods or services may be higher or lower than the levels adopted in this modelling.
The provisions of the free trade agreement are modelled as a reduction in trade costs between the UK and Australia – that is, the glass