Grey market products can be put into circulation by the brands themselves (by the brand selling old shares) or by third parties in the distribution line (by retailers or traders who sell unsaleable shares). The manager responsible for these products, determined to “pose the problem”, said: “First of all, our sellers should point out to the customer that the grey dispenser is not a reliable source of supply and that its units are not covered by our warranty. Sellers can also point out that we sell the whole package that the customer needs while the OEM nickname cannot. Second, much of the grey activity is in products that consider large customers of close goods. Capacity utilization is an important dimension of this activity. Making money on drives requires a high volume, and these pseudo-equipment manufacturers often offer the incremental volume needed to significantly reduce our production costs. Conversely, in 1987 and 1988, when the dollar was weak and the yen rose, a thriving grey market emerged in Japan, based on the unauthorized re-import of Japanese products from the United States and other countries, such as Canon cameras and Panasonic wireless phones. Through this procedure, the company coordinates the prices of offers and books, minimizes arbitration opportunities for large customers or distributors and supervises the activities of large contracts (which are most sensitive to grey market activities). The company can also tailor distributors` price-free requests to the level of value-added assistance they expect, thus protecting their full-service distributors for large price-sensitive orders. As more and more manufacturers apply global product strategies with uniform products and even multilingual packaging for the global market, international grey markets can have a bright future for many products. Batteries and other devices are an example. But inaction can be worse for the manufacturer — as the hard drive manufacturer discovered at the time of our investigation. A fundamental change in distribution strategy is often needed to address the causes of a grey market.